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Xanax Side Effects: Listed & Explained

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Xanax (alprazolam) is a benzodiazepine and a depressant of the CNS (central nervous system) often prescribed to manage generalized anxiety and panic disorders. When taken according to medical guidance, alprazolam can be beneficial. That said, misuse increases the risk of severe side effects of Xanax, including addiction, overdose, and in some rare cases, fatality.

What Are the Side Effects of Xanax?

Xanax can cause several side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, tiredness, blurred vision, and difficulty concentrating. Xanax adverse reactions may also include changes in weight, altered sex drive, or increased sweating.

Short-Term Side Effects of Xanax

Short term side effects of Xanax may vary in intensity and frequency from person to person. Immediate side effects of alprazolam may include:

  • Neurological effects: Side effects of Xanax commonly include drowsiness, a sense of fatigue, and impaired coordination, which can impact daily activities and tasks that require alertness – driving, for instance.
  • Cognitive impacts: Short-term memory issues, confusion, and difficulty concentrating are also reported side effects of alprazolam, potentially affecting work or study performance.
  • Emotional changes: Some people might encounter mood swings, increased anxiety, or feelings of depression, even when taking Xanax for mental health conditions.
  • Physical symptoms: These can include headaches, dry mouth, constipation, nausea, and changes in appetite, leading to weight gain or loss.
  • Sensory effects: Blurred vision and trouble articulating words (slurred speech) can occur, affecting the ability to communicate effectively.
  • Sleep disturbances: While often used to alleviate anxiety-related insomnia, Xanax can sometimes lead to sleep problems, such as vivid dreams or difficulty staying asleep.
  • Paradoxical reactions: In rare cases, individuals may experience increased excitement or aggression, opposite to the calming effect Xanax is supposed to have.
  • Allergic reactions: Although uncommon, some people might have an allergic reaction to Xanax, which can manifest as hives, itching, or swelling, and require immediate medical attention.

Monitor these side effects closely and report any severe or persistent issues to a healthcare provider, as they may necessitate adjustments in the dosage or a change in medication.

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Long-Term Side Effects of Xanax

Long term side effects of Xanax may include:

  • Dependency and withdrawal: Long-term use can lead to physical and psychological dependence, perhaps the most damaging of Xanax negative side effects. Withdrawal symptoms can be severe and include anxiety, seizures, tremors, and in rare cases, psychosis.
  • Cognitive decline: Memory impairment, difficulty with concentration, and disorientation can become more pronounced with extended use, potentially affecting daily functioning.
  • Mood and behavioral changes: Long-term alprazolam side effects may involve persistent depressive symptoms, mood swings, or aggressive behavior, altering personal and professional relationships.
  • Sleep disruption: Chronic use may lead to alterations in sleep patterns, resulting in difficulty achieving restful sleep without the medication.
  • Tolerance: People often develop tolerance to Xanax, requiring higher doses to achieve therapeutic effects, increasing the risk of overdose and further side effects.
  • Physical health concerns: Long-term Xanax use can contribute to gastrointestinal issues, chronic fatigue, weight changes, and sexual dysfunction.
  • Neurological implications: There’s a risk of developing an increased sensitivity to stress, prolonged periods of confusion, and in some cases, seizures, especially if the drug is discontinued abruptly.
  • Social and occupational impact: The side effects and potential for abuse of Xanax can have significant social and occupational repercussions, such as withdrawal from social situations and impaired work performance.
  • Emotional blunting: Individuals may find that their emotional responses are dulled, leading to a decrease in the ability to experience pleasure or sadness.
  • Increased risk of dementia: Some studies have suggested a possible association between long-term benzodiazepine use and an increased risk of dementia, though this relationship is still being explored.

Due to these potential long-term side effects, Xanax should be used with caution and only under strict medical supervision. Physicians often recommend strategies to minimize these risks, including regular evaluations and exploring alternative therapies where appropriate.

Treatment for Xanax Side Effects

Managing side effects from Xanax involves several strategies. Consult a healthcare provider if experiencing side effects. They may adjust the dose or switch medications.

Incorporating lifestyle changes such as a balanced diet, regular exercise, and good sleep hygiene can help mitigate some side effects like drowsiness and weight changes.

If discontinuing Xanax, it should be done gradually under medical supervision. A tapered reduction in dosage helps to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional ensures side effects are managed effectively and can provide additional support measures if needed.

Sometimes, non-pharmacological therapies like CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) can provide relief from the conditions Xanax is prescribed for, potentially reducing the need for the medication.


What are the most common side effects of Xanax?

Xanax, commonly used to treat anxiety and panic disorders, can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, increased saliva production, or a change in sex drive or performance.

What are Xanax side effects long term?

Long-term use of Xanax can lead to dependence, memory problems, depression, and difficulty sleeping. There’s also an increased risk of developing tolerance, which may reduce its effectiveness.

Does Xanax have side effects when used as prescribed?

Even when used as prescribed, Xanax can cause side effects including drowsiness, fatigue, and coordination issues, although these are generally less severe compared to misuse.

Do side effects of Xanax go away?

Many side effects of Xanax, like drowsiness and lightheadedness, may diminish over time as the body adjusts to the medication. However, some side effects may persist and require medical attention.

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Juan Bonnet
Author: Juan Bonnet


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